Check for responsiveness. Shake or tap the person gently. See if the person moves or makes a noise. Shout, "Are you OK?"
Call the doctor if there is no response. Shout for help and send someone to call the doctor.
Carefully place the person on his or her back. If there is a chance the person has a spinal injury, two people are needed to move the person without twisting the head and neck.
Open the airway. Lift up the chin with 2 fingers. At the same time, push down on the forehead with the other hand.
Look, listen, and feel for breathing. Place your ear close to the person's mouth and nose. Watch for chest movement. Feel for breath on your cheek.
If the person is not breathing:
- Cover the person's mouth tightly with your mouth
- Pinch the nose closed
- Keep the chin lifted and head tilted
- Give 2 slow, full breaths
If the chest does NOT rise, try the chin lift-head tilt again, and give 2 more breaths. If the chest still doesn't rise, check to see if something is blocking the airway and try to remove it.
Look for signs of circulation -- normal breathing, coughing, or movement. If these signs are absent, begin chest compressions.
Perform chest compressions:
- Place the heel of one hand on the breastbone -- right between the nipples.
- Place the heel of your other hand on top of the first hand.
- Position your body directly over your hands. Your shoulders should be in line with your hands. DO NOT lean back or forward. As you gaze down, you should be looking directly down on your hands.
- Give 30 chest compressions. Each time, press down about 2 inches into the chest. These compressions should be FAST and hard with no pausing. Count the 30 compressions quickly: "1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30, off."
Give the person 2 slow, full breaths. The chest should rise.
Continue cycles of 30 chest compressions followed by 2 slow, full breaths.
After about 2 minute (four cycles of 30 compressions and 2 breaths), re-check for signs of circulation.
Repeat the above steps until the person recovers or help arrives.
If the person starts breathing again, place him or her in the recovery position. Periodically re-check for breathing and signs of circulation until help arrives.
If a spinal injury is suspected, DO NOT tilt the head back when attempting to open the airway. Instead, place your fingers on the jaw on each side of the head. Lift the jaw forward. This keeps the head and neck from moving.
If the person has signs of circulation -- normal breathing, coughing, or movement -- DO NOT begin chest compressions. Doing so may cause the heart to stop beating.
Unless you are a health professional, DO NOT check for a pulse. Only a healthcare professional is properly trained to check for a pulse.