Pneumonia is a lung disease. Pneumococcal pneumonia can infect the upper respiratory tract and can spread to the blood, lungs, middle ear, or nervous system.
Pneumococcal pneumonia mainly causes illness in children younger than 2 years old and adults 65 years of age or older. The elderly are especially at risk of getting seriously ill and dying from this disease. In addition, people with certain medical conditions such as chronic heart, lung, or liver diseases or sickle cell anemia are also at increased risk for getting pneumococcal pneumonia. People with HIV infection, AIDS, or people who have had organ transplants and are taking medicines that lower their resistance to infection are also at high risk of getting this
Pneumonia can be caused by a variety of viruses, bacteria, and sometimes fungi. Pneumococcal pneumonia is caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. S. pneumoniae is also called pneumococcus.
Pneumococcus is spread through contact between people who are ill or who carry the bacteria in their throat. You can get pneumococcal pneumonia from respiratory droplets from the nose or mouth of an infected person. It is common for people, especially children, to carry the bacteria in their throats without being sick.
Pneumococcal pneumonia may begin suddenly. You may first have a severe shaking chill which is usually followed by
- High fever
- Shortness of breath
- Rapid breathing
- Chest pains
Other symptoms may include
- Muscle aches
Your health care provider can diagnose pneumonia based on your
- Physical exam
- Lab tests
- Chest x-ray
Other bacteria and germs also can cause pneumonia. Therefore, if you have any of the symptoms of pneumonia, you should get diagnosed early and start taking medicine, if appropriate.
Your health care provider can usually diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia by finding S. pneumoniae bacteria in your blood, saliva, or lung fluid.
Your health care provider usually will prescribe antibiotics to treat this disease. The symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia usually go away within 12 to 36 hours after you start taking medicine.
Some bacteria such as S. pneumoniae, however, are now capable of resisting and fighting off antibiotics. Such antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide because these medicines have been overused or misused. Therefore, if you are at risk of getting pneumococcal pneumonia, you should talk with your health care provider about what you can do to prevent it.
The pneumococcal vaccine is the only way to prevent getting pneumococcal pneumonia. Vaccines are available for children and adults.
It is recommended that you get the pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine if you are in any of the following groups.
- You are 65 years old or older
- You have a serious long-term health problem such as heart disease, sickle cell disease, alcoholism, lung disease (not including asthma), diabetes, or liver cirrhosis
- Your resistance to infection is lowered due to
- HIV infection or AIDS
- Lymphoma, leukemia, or other cancers
- Cancer treatment with x-rays or medicines
- Treatment with long-term steroid medicines
- Bone marrow or organ transplant
- Kidney failure or kidney syndrome
- Damaged spleen or no spleen
It is also recommended that all babies and children younger than 2 years old get the pneumococcal vaccine.
In about 30 percent of people with pneumococcal pneumonia, the bacteria invade the bloodstream from the lungs. This causes bacterium, a very serious complication of pneumococcal pneumonia that also can cause other lung problems and certain heart problems.