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Child diseases and conditions



Table of Communicable Diseases


The following table can explain about the variuos communicable diseases :

Disease Poliomyelitis (Polio) Typhoid Tonsillitis Tetanus Whooping cough (Pertussis)
Symptoms and Signs Slight fever, general discomfort, headache, stiff neck, stiff back. May result in paralysis of any part of body. Fever, headache, malaise Fever, cough, sore throat. Stiffness of jaw, spasms and Convulsions DiffictIty in swallowing. Cough becoming continuous at end of second week, whoop,frequent vomiting
Causes Virus Bacillus Streptococci Bacillus Bacillus
Manner of Infection Contact with infected people and articles used by them. Infected food and water, carriers, infected food handler. Contact with infected people and carriers. Through soil, street dust or articles contaminated with the bacillus following injury. Contact with infected people.
Incubation period (date of exposure to first sign) 7-21 days 7-21 days 2-5 days 5 days to 2 weeks. 7 - 14 days. Commonly 10.
Period of communicability 1 week from onset until fever disappears. Variable. About 10 days (during incubation period and illness. Not communicable person to person From onset of first symptom to about 4 weeks.
Most susceptible ages 9 months to 5 years. Children and young adults. All ages. All ages Birth to 6 years. Uncommon after that.
Season and prevalence Summer. Summer. All seasons. All seasons. Winter and spring.
Duration Depends on seriousness of attack. 6-12 weeks or longer. 3-4 days. Depends on seriousness. About 2 months.
Treatment Isolation from onset till fever subsides. Proper disposal of stools and urine. Chloramphenicol or substitute for 3-4 weeks. Penicillin or substitute for 10 days. Hospitalization. Quarantine from susceptible family members. Antibiotics symptomatic.
Prevention Oral polio vaccine. Typhoid vaccine. None Tetanus toxoid separate or in DPT. Clean wound Immediately DPT.

Disease Chickenpox Diphtheria Measles German measles (Rubella) Mumps
Symptoms and Signs Begins with running nose, moderate fever, headache, malaise. Rash develops into successive clusters of blisters filled with clear fluid, which become encrusted and fall off. Fever, sore throat. Dirty white patches on tonsils (sometimes on throat) Rah which starts at hairline, preceded by mounting fever, dry cough, running nose and red eyes for 3-4 days. Mild fever,sore throat or cold. Symptoms may precede fine rose- coloured rash. Enlarged glands behind ears. Headache, chills, fever, swelling on both sides of jaw.
Site Trunk, face, neck. Tonsils, throat, larynx. Face, later whole body. Face and neck, then spreads to trunk and limbs. Both sides of jaw.
Manner of Infection Contact with infected people and articles used by them. Contact with infected people and articles used by them. Contact with infected people and articles used by them.. Contact with infected people. Contact with infected people and articles used by them.
Incubation period (date of exposure to first sign) 11 to 21 days (usually only 13-17 days). Within a week after exposure. 10-14 days. 2-3 weeks. 2-4 weeks.
Period of communicability Roughly first day before onset of symptoms, until scabs are crusted over. 2-4 weeks after onset, until throat cultures are clear of virulent diphtheria bacilli. Till the rash begins to subside. 1 day before onset until rash and fever disappear. Uncertain; about 1 week from onset or as long as fever persists.
Most susceptible ages. Any age, commonly young children. Common under 5-6 years. 1 year to 5 years. Children and young adults. Children 5-15 years. Young adults.
Season of prevalence. Winter and spring. Spring and autumn. Spring, early summer Spring. Late winter, early spring.
Duration. 1 2 weeks. Depends on seriousness. 6-7 days. 3-5 days. 2-3 weeks.
Treatment. Nothing specific. Do not mix with other chidren till crusts dry. Quarantine. Isolation until 3 throat cultures are negative. Antitoxin and antibiotics. Avoid contact with other children till rash subsides. Antibiotics only in case of complications. Isolation not necessary except from a pregnant woman. No attempt should be made to prevent the disease in childhood. There are more complications in adolescents.
Prevention. No vaccine yet available. Inocubation with diphtheria toxoid in triple vaccine. Vaccine (not available in India). Vaccine (not available in India). Vaccine (not available in India).


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