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Child Growth Stages

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Child Developmental milestones record

 

In 2 months

Physical and motor-skill markers:
  • Closure of posterior fontanelle (soft spot at the back of the head)
  • Several newborn reflexes, such as the dance reflex (baby appears to dance or step when placed upright on solid surface)and grasp reflex (grasping a finger), disappear
  • Less head lag
  • When on stomach, able to lift head almost 45 degrees
  • Less flexing of the arms and legs while on stomach
Sensory and cognitive markers:
  • Head turns from side to side with sound at the level of the ear
  • Beginning to look at close objects
  • Crying becomes differentiated
  • Coos
  • Vocal response to familiar voices
  • Smiles
Play recommendations:
  • Toys and objects should be bright colors
  • The room should be bright with pictures and mirrors
  • Expose the baby to sounds outside those of the home
  • Take the baby for rides in the car
In 4 Months

Infants 4 months old are expected to develop certain physical and mental skills. These skills are called milestones.

PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILLS

The typical 4-month-old should:
  • Show a slowing of weight gain to approximately 20 grams per day
  • Demonstrate the fading of the infant reflexes (Moro reflex, asymmetric tonic neck reflex, rooting reflex, and Perez reflex)
  • Have almost no head lag while in a sitting position
  • Be able to sit up straight if propped
  • Raise head 90 degrees when placed on stomach
  • Be able to roll from front to back
  • Try to reach objects with hands (may commonly overshoot)
  • Play with rattle when it's placed in the hands, but won't be able to pick it up if dropped
  • Be able to grasp rattle with both hands
  • Be able to place objects in mouth
SENSORY AND COGNITIVE SKILLS

A 4-month-old is expected to:
  • Have well-established close vision
  • Have beginning eye-hand coordination
  • Be able to babble and coo
  • Be able to laugh out loud
  • Anticipate feeding when able to see a bottle (if bottle-fed)
  • Begin to show memory
  • Demand attention by fussing
  • Recognize parent voice or touch
PLAY You can encourage development through play:
  • Place the baby in front of a mirror
  • Provide bright-colored toys to hold
  • Repeat sounds the infant makes
  • Help the infant roll over
  • Use a swing or stroller
In 6 months

Physical and motor-skill markers:
  • Should have doubled birth weight (birth weight often doubles by 4 months, and it would be concerning if it hasn't happened by 6 months)
  • Able to lift chest and head while on stomach, bearing the weight on hands (often occurs by 4 months)
  • Able to sit in a high chair with a straight back
  • Beginning of teething
  • Increased drooling
  • Able to bear almost all weight when supported in a standing position
  • Able to roll from back to stomach
  • Able to hold own bottle (but many babies won't do it, or do it only for short periods)
  • Able to pick up a dropped object
Sensory and cognitive markers:
  • Vision is between 20/60 and 20/40
  • Can locate sounds not made directly at the ear level
  • Prefers more complex sound stimulation
  • Starts to imitate sounds
  • Sounds resemble one-syllable words
  • Enjoys hearing own voice
  • Makes sounds to mirror and toys
  • Begins to fear strangers
  • Recognizes parents
  • Begins to imitate actions
  • Begins to realize that if an object is dropped, it is still there and just needs to be picked up
Play recommendations:
  • Provide a mirror that is unbreakable
  • Provide large, bright colored toys that make noise or have moving parts
  • Provide paper to tear
  • Speak clearly
  • Imitate words such as "mama" to facilitate learning of language
  • Start naming parts of the body and the environment
  • Use the word "no" INFREQUENTLY
  • Use body movements and actions to teach language
In 9 months

At 9 months, a typical infant will demonstrate certain skills and growth markers known as milestones.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR SKILLS

A 9 month old generally has reached the following milestones:
  • Gains weight at a slower rate -- approximately 15 grams per day, 1 pound per month
  • Increases in length by 1.5 centimeters per month
  • Becomes more regulated in bowel and bladder systems
  • Shows parachute reflex to protect self from falling
  • Is able to crawl
  • Remains sitting for prolonged periods
  • Pulls self to standing position
  • Has a pincer grasp between thumb and index finger
  • Feeds self
  • Throws or shakes objects
SENSORY AND COGNITIVE SKILLS

The 9 month old typically:
  • Is developing depth perception
  • Achieves "object constancy", the understanding that objects continue to exist even when not seen
  • Responds to simple commands
  • Responds to name
  • Understands the meaning of "no"
  • Imitates speech sounds
  • May be afraid of being left alone
  • Plays interactive games
PLAY

To aid the development of the 9 month old:
  • Provide picture books
  • Provide different stimuli:
    • Go to the mall (people)
    • Go to the zoo (animals)
  • Play ball
  • Build vocabulary by reading and naming people and objects in the environment
  • Teach hot and cold through play
  • Provide large toys that can be pushed to encourage walking

 


 
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