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Child Growth Stages

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Child Developmental milestones record

 

In 2 years

Physical and motor-skill markers:
  • Should have the first 16 teeth (can be a wide variation of the actual number of teeth)
  • The height is roughly half the total height the child will attain as an adult
  • May be psychologically ready for toilet training
  • Can run with better coordination, while the stance may remain wide
  • Can kick ball without losing balance
  • Can build a tower of 6 to 7 cubes
  • Can browse through a book one page at a time
  • Able to turn a door knob
  • Can pick up objects while standing, without losing balance (often occurs by 15 months, and would be concerning if you don't see it by 2 years)
Sensory and cognitive markers:
  • Vision fully developed
  • Vocabulary has increased to about 50 to300 words (healthy children demonstrate wide variations)
  • Can organize phrases of 2 to 3 words
  • Able to communicate needs such as thirst, hunger, need to use the restroom
  • Increased attention span
  • Able to clothe self in simple clothes (frequently more adept at removing clothes than putting them on)
Play recommendations:
  • Encourage and provide the necessary space for physical activity
  • Provide safe replicas of adult tools and equipment
  • Allow the child to help around the house and participate in the daily responsibilities of the family
  • Encourage play that involves building and creativity
  • Try to avoid watching television at this age.
  • Parents should control both the content and quantity of television viewing. Limit television viewing to less than 3 hours per day, and preferably 1 hour or less. Avoid programming with violent content. Re-direct the child to reading or play activities
  • Control the type and quantity of games played

    • In 3 years

      These milestones are typical of children in the third year of life. Always keep in mind that some variation is normal. If you have questions about your child's development, contact your health care provider.
      With physical and motor skills, a typical 3-year-old:
      • Gains about 5 pounds
      • Grows about 3 inches
      • Has improved balance
      • Has improved vision
      • May have daytime control over bowel and bladder functions (may have nighttime control as well)
      • Can briefly balance on one foot
      • May walk up the stairs with alternating feet
      • Can construct a block tower of more than 9 cubes
      • Can easily place small objects in a small opening
      In sensory and cognitive skills, a child:
      • Has a vocabulary of many hundreds of words
      • Composes sentences of 3 to 4 words
      • Frequently asks questions
      • Can dress self, only requiring assistance with laces, buttons, and other fasteners in awkward places
      • Has longer attention span
      • Feeds self without difficulty
      • Acts out social encounters through play activities
      • Has some decrease in separation anxiety for short periods of time
      At age 3, nearly all of a child's speech should be understandable.

      Recommendations for parents regarding appropriate play at this age:
      • Provide a safe play environment and constant supervision.
      • Encourage and provide the necessary space for physical activity.
      • Instruct the child how to participate in and learn the rules of sporting activities.
      • Encourage play with other children to help develop social skills.
      • Encourage creative play.
      • Read together.
      • Limit both the time and the content of television viewing.
      • Expose your child to different stimuli by visiting local areas of interest.
      • Encourage your child to learn by answering questions and providing activities related to the child's particular interests.
      • Encourage your child to learn simple chore such as picking up their toys or room. Welcome their help in small household tasks.

      In 4 years

      PHYSICAL AND MOTOR

      During the 4th year, a child typically:
      • Gains weight at the rate of about six grams per day
      • Grows to a height that is double the length at birth
      • Shows improved balance
      • Hops on one foot without losing balance
      • Throws a ball overhand with coordination
      • Can cut out a picture using scissors
      • May not be able to tie shoelaces
      • May still wet the bed (normal)
      SENSORY AND COGNITIVE

      The typical 4-year-old:
      • Has a vocabulary of over 1500 words
      • Easily composes sentences of four or five words
      • Can use the past tense
      • Can count to four
      • Will ask the most questions of any age
      • May use words that aren't fully understood
      • May begin using vulgar terms, depending on their exposure
      • Learns and sings simple songs
      • Tries to be very independent
      • May show increased aggressive behavior
      • Talks about personal family matters to others
      • Commonly has imaginary playmates
      • Has an increased comprehension of time
      • Is able to distinguish between two objects based on simple criteria such as size and weight
      • Lacks moral concepts of right and wrong
      • Is rebellious if expectations are excessive
      PLAY

      As the parent of a 4-year-old, you should:
      • Encourage and provide the necessary space for physical activity
      • Instruct the child how to participate in, and follow the rules of sporting activities
      • Encourage play and sharing with other children
      • Encourage creative play
      • Teach children to do small chores, such as setting the table
      • Read together
      • Monitor both the time and content of television viewing (preferably less than 1.5 hours of TV, no more than 3 hours maximum)
      • Expose the child to different stimuli by visiting local areas of interest

      In 5 years

      Physical and motor skills milestones for a 5-year-old may include:
      • Erupting the first permanent teeth (the majority of children do not get their first permanent teeth until age 6)
      • Developing increased coordination
      • Skipping, jumping, and skating with good balance
      • Maintaining balance while standing on one foot with eyes closed
      • Tying own shoelaces
      • Showing increased skill with simple tools and writing utensils
      Sensory and cognitive milestones include:
      • Increasing vocabulary to over 2100 words
      • Composing sentences of six to eight words, and with all parts of speech
      • Identifying coins
      • Properly naming the primary colors and possibly many more
      • Questioning more deeply, addressing meaning and purpose
      • Behaving more responsibly
      • Decreasing aggressive behavior
      • Outgrowing earlier childhood fears
      • Accepting the validity of other points of view (while possibly not understanding them)
      • Demonstrating increased mathematical skill
      • Questioning others, including parents
      • Strongly identifying with the parent of the same sex
      Ways to encourage a 5-year-old's development may include:
      • Reading together
      • Providing the necessary space for physical activity
      • Instructing the child to participate in -- and learn the rules of -- sporting activities
      • Encouraging the child to play with other children, which helps develop social skills
      • Playing creatively with the child
      • Monitoring both the time and content of television viewing
      • Visiting local areas of interest
      • Encourage the child to take responsibility for small household chores such as helping set the table
      • Have the child pick up his or her toys after playing

 


 
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